MOTIVATIONAL PRACTICES A TOOL FOR SUSTAINING COMPETITIVENESS IN ORGANIZATIONS By S. C. SIVASUNDARAM ANUSHAN, M. B. A, M. Phil. , Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, V. H. N. S. N. College, VIRUDHUNAGAR- 626001. Introduction In this day and age, any company that wants to get ahead needs to have motivated workers. Traditional incentive programs have been based upon extrinsic motivators such as salary and benefits. Intrinsic motivation, however, is needed in order to arouse a persons passion or commitment to the job.

Shared vision, leadership, teamwork, training, increased capability, and goal accomplishment are powerful motivators which can be encouraged, embedded, or “designed in” to create a high performance culture. A 1993 public relations brochure on the Opel production system makes a surprising statement: “Employee motivation represents one of our largest productivity reserves and is therefore a key element for increasing the international competitiveness of German automobile manufacturers” “Continuous improvement at Open Essence is part of the team concept.

People on the job understand their immediate work environment and are expected to optimise the process, to change details of the assembly, or to develop new procedures . There are two more lessons to consider. One is the surprising level of work motivation created by giving people full control over their jobs and letting them organize their workplace to reach the highest possible degree of overall efficiency. This changes the role of management to becoming a resource of advice and support, based on close partnership and open communications. The other is the impo! rtance of learning, or continuous skill acquisition.

Learning with the team and across the team structure at Opel Eisenach provides the people with a good understanding of the conceptual framework of the facility and everyones role within it. Examples: Motivational Practices 1. Mars, Inc. : Every employee, including the president, gets a weekly 10% bonus by coming to work on time each day that week. 2. Japanese Companies: Employees meet regularly to hear inspirational speeches, sing company songs, & chant the corporate litany. 3. Tupperware & Mary Kay Cosmetics: Hold inspirational get-togethers for sales force organizations. 4.

Procter & Gamble: Encourages competition among brand managers; system breeds people who love to compete and excel Contemporary issues in motivation: Understanding and predicting employee motivation continues to be one of the most popular areas in management research. Several significant workplace issues are important to look at in understanding motivation. A. To maximize motivation among today’s diversified work force, managers need to think in terms of being flexible. Many of the so-called family-friendly programmes and flexible working schedules that organizations have developed are a response to the varied needs of a diverse workforce. . A compressed workweek is a workweek comprised of four 10-hour days. 2. Flexible work hours (also known as flextime) describes a scheduling system in which employees are required to work a number of hours a week, but are free, within limits, to vary the hours of work. 3. Job sharing is the practice of having two or more people split a forty-hour-a-week job. 4. Telecommuting allows employees to do their work at home through the linking by computer and modem of the employee and the office. 5. Cultural differences also play a role in motivating a diverse workforce.

Managers need to be aware of cultural differences in developing appropriate motivation programmes. B. Pay-for-performance programs are compensation plans that pay employees on the basis of some performance measure. C. Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) is a compensation program in which employees become part owners of the organization by receiving stock as a performance incentive. D. Motivating minimum-wage employees is one of the toughest motivation challenges a manager faces. Since money typically can’t be used as a reward, managers look for other types of rewards such as employee recognition programs.

But managers can also look to job design and expectancy theories of motivation to find some help in motivating these workers. From theory to practice: suggestions for motivating employees Several suggestions for motivating employees are given and are based upon what is currently known about motivation. A. Recognise individual differences in terms of needs, attitudes, personality, and other important individual factors. B. Match people to jobs by identifying what needs are important to individuals and trying to provide jobs that allow them to fulfil those needs.

C. Use goals since the literature on goal-setting suggests that managers should ensure that employees have hard, specific goals and feedback on how well they are doing in pursuit of those goals. D. Ensure that goals are perceived as attainable. Employees who see goals as unattainable will reduce their level of effort. E. Individualise rewards. Because employees have different needs, what is a reward and rein-forcer to one may not work for another. F. Link rewards to performance by making rewards contingent on desired levels of performance. G.

Check the system for equity. Employees should perceive that the rewards or outcomes are equal to the inputs given. H. Don’t ignore money. The allocation of performance-based wage increases, piecework bonuses, and other pay incentives is important in determining employee motivation. Motivation’s three critical pre-requisites Motivation = Productivity Communication = Execution of Strategy Motivation + Communication = Sustained Productivity This is the mantra of success for any organisation. Motivation is directly proportional to productivity.

A proper motivated workforce is known to have achieved amazing target when certain hygiene factors are not present. The essence of Motivation management is: confidence, trust and satisfaction. The cost of neglecting motivation can lead to declined performance of the employee which in turn leads to reduced productivity. Performance either declines or the propensity to leave increases when motivational levels drop. When poor- performing employees are not motivated to improve, they drag results down, reduce productivity among their team members and, worse, seldom leave because they have no place to go.

The crux of motivation management is to understand that employees are motivated by what they believe is going to happen, not by what managers’ promise will happen. Managers can motivate employees by setting in motion the three conditions required for motivation-confidence, trust and satisfaction-and by creating an environment that reinforces those conditions. 1. Confidence – Most importantly, managers can improve motivation by assigning work to employees that they naturally do well and that they enjoy. When employees can do the job well naturally, they know they can perform and there will be no confidence problems. 2.

Trust – Employees face a major motivational roadblock when they believe, “Outcomes are not tied to my performance. I will not get what my performance deserves. ” This is a trust problem. Trust problems tend to be easier for managers to spot because employees usually are vocal about them. There are two difficulties, however, that managers* face. Trust problems cannot be corrected quickly. It takes time to build trust and courage for managers to give employees what their performance deserves. It may be easy to reward the high performers, but it is sometimes uncomfortable to withhold rewards when people perform poorly.

It is particularly difficult when the poor-performing employee is either an outspoken troublemaker or a loyal, dedicated and hard-working employee. But giving employees what their performance deserves is important. To do otherwise might send a crippling message to the under performing employee and his team-mates. It is like a parent who tells two children they can have ice cream if they clean their rooms, then lets both have the reward when only one completes the chore. This teaches both children that they do not have to perform to get what they want. 3.

Satisfaction – It is difficult for employees to put out the effort necessary to get their work done when they realize, “The outcomes offered to me are not satisfying. I’m not getting what I want from my job. ” People may believe they can do the job (confidence) and that outcomes will be tied to performance (trust), but they will not be motivated if they believe the outcomes will be dissatisfying. It does not make sense for anyone to work hard for something he doesn’t want. Many managers fail to take the time to find out what is satisfying and dissatisfying to each employee.

When motivating employees, many managers make the mistake of believing and acting as though everyone is motivated in the same way. This simply is not true. What motivates one person may even de-motivate another. Challenging work, for example, is motivating to some employees, intimidating to others; some employees prefer the certainty! of a fixed routine, while others thrive on task variety. Conclusion Managers also cannot assume that each employee will be satisfied if the three “big outcomes” money, advancement and job security-are fulfilled.

Another outcome, such as praise, recognition, openness or honesty, may be more of a motivating factor to some employees. Another interesting point is that when the work itself is satisfying, employees tend to be very forgiving when there is a shortfall in rewards. Why? Because employees are getting something that is highly prized by most people in today’s work environment-enjoyment from their work. Motivation is related to the above three factors, if any one of them is not up to the mark performance suffers; thus there is a loss of productivity of the organisation.